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UN - The United Nations

The UN is an association between almost all countries in the world. The UN currently has 193 members, including Germany. The UN is based in New York (USA). The representatives of the member countries (states) meet there regularly to talk about current problems in the world and to find solutions together.

2015 World MapThe abbreviation UN is English and means " U nited N ations" which means "United Nations" in German. Sometimes the abbreviation UNO is used for "United Nations Organization" in German. However, strictly speaking, this abbreviation is actually not correct German name VN for "United Nations" is rarely used.

Foundation of the UN

The UN was founded by 51 states in 1945 after the Second World War. Due to the terrible events in this war, the founding states decided to maintain a friendly relationship in the future and to work for world peace. At that time, the UN members drafted a contract, the so-called UN Charter. So if a country wants to join the UN, it must first sign the UN Charter and thereby recognize it.

What are the goals of the UN?

The two main goals of the UN are world peace and international security. However, if there is no peace in a country, but war, the UN can send its peacekeepers into the country. The soldiers of the peacekeeping forces, known as blue helmet soldiers, are supposed to ensure on the spot that peace returns between the opponents of the war.

The UN also helps countries where there is a great emergency, such as after natural disasters (such as earthquakes or tsunamis) or during wars. The UN tries to ensure that the people affected receive water, food and medical care. The UN is also committed to protecting and upholding human rights. So she makes sure that all people and children have the same rights. Other important goals include combating climate change and compliance with international law.

How is the UN structured?

The UN is headed by a chief, the so-called general secretary. António Guterres has been from Portugal since 2017.

In addition to the Secretary General, the UN consists of various sub-organizations, each with specific tasks. These include, for example:

  • The General Assembly decides, for example, whether new members will be admitted to the UN or whether the UN Charter will be changed. It is something like the Parliament of the World, except that its representatives are not elected by the citizens, but are sent by the participating countries.
  • The International Court of Justice- it rules on disputes between countries. It consists of 15 judges and is based in The Hague (Netherlands).
  • The Security Council. It is probably the most important sub-organization of the UN. You can find information in an extra chapter below.

In addition to the large sub-organizations, the UN also includes aid organizations such as the refugee relief organization and the children's relief organization UNICEF. For example, they should work for children and help quickly in the event of disasters.

UN Security Council

The Security Council is a very important sub-organization of the UN. He bears a lot of responsibility, because he should ensure that there is peace all over the world. The Security Council decides on the use of peacekeepers (blue helmet soldiers) or punitive measures against certain countries that endanger peace.

The Security Council has a total of 15 member countries. The countries USA, China, Russia, France and Great Britain are always represented, they are so-called "permanent members". The other countries are only sometimes members (including Germany) and have to be elected again and again. The "permanent members" have a significant advantage over the others. You have a veto right in the Security Council. This means that if a "permanent member" is not satisfied with a decision, he can veto (objection/ban). This can block the majority decision and it has to be renegotiated.

Flag of the UN

The official flag of the UN is its flag. This shows the globe in white on a light blue background. The globe is framed by two olive branches. They are a classic symbol of peace and are intended to express the main goal of the UN: peace in the world.

EUROPEAN CONTINENT

The European continent is the second smallest, but one of the most important politically and economically.

Europe is a continent bordering Asia in the east; it is bathed by the Arctic Glacial Ocean, to the north; across the Atlantic to the West; and across the Mediterranean and Black Seas to the south, bordering the Middle East across the Bosphorus Strait (check the map). It is located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere of the planet and, at the same time, in the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Because it is geographically "glued" to Asia, many refer to this continental bloc as Eurasia.

For many years (since the 16th century), Europe was considered the main economic and scientific center in the world, losing this position during the 20th century. In fact, this leadership did not belong to the European continent as a whole, but to some economic powers in the region, with an emphasis on England and France.

Despite the relative decline of these countries in the face of economies such as the United States and China, Europe has the largest and most powerful economic bloc in the world, the European Union. Check Countryaah for all members in EU. This bloc differs from the others in that it is the only one to guarantee the free movement of goods, goods and people, in addition to having its own currency: the euro, adopted by almost all member countries.

If we look closely at the map above, we can see that Europe looks more like a "patchwork quilt" because it has a large number of countries in a small space. In total, there are 50 countries squeezed in about 10,500.00 km˛, something slightly larger than the Brazilian territory.

This is due to the constant wars and political disputes that have occurred in this region throughout history, in which the countless existing ethnic groups sought for their independence and built their respective National States. Despite this, there are still many peoples whose nation has no homeland, such as the Catalan people, whose territory belongs to Spain.

Europe's terrain is predominantly plain and slightly rugged. But in some places there are some mountain ranges, like the Alps. The climate is predominantly temperate continental and oceanic.

Europe is considered important because it was responsible for colonizing most of the rest of the world. It was on that continent that most of our customs emerged, since, by colonizing and invading other territories, Europeans imposed their type of civilization. Despite being considered the most scientifically advanced (modern science also emerged in Europe), it was on this continent that the greatest wars in human history took place.


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