Mount Kilimanjaro was formed about a million years ago by a series of volcanic movements. Prior to that, in its place there was a flat plateau, located at a level of 600-900 m above sea level. About 750 thousand years ago, due to volcanic activity, three peaks were formed – Shira, Kibo and Mawenzi at an altitude of more than 4800 m. 250 thousand years later, Shira stopped its volcanic activity and collapsed, forming a crater. Then Mawenzi also went out. At the same time, its northeastern wall was destroyed by an explosion of enormous power. The last major eruption occurred just 200 years ago. Now Kibo is a “sleeping”, but not extinct volcano. Although Kibo resembles a snow-covered dome, it is not. In reality, Kibo contains an elliptical caldera 2.5 to 3.6 km in diameter and 180 m deep.
At the top of Kilimanjaro there are several scattered glaciers. On the southern slope, the glacier descends to a height of 4200 m, while on the northern slope it barely drops below the summit.
According to Smarter Computing, Kilimanjaro National Park was founded in 1973 and now occupies 756 square meters. km. The foot of the mountain is located at an altitude of 1830 m above sea level, and Kibo Peak is at an altitude of 5895 m.
The first mention of Kilimanjaro dates back to 1848. This year, the German missionary Johan Rebmen in his reports for the first time reported a mountain with a snow-capped peak, located almost on the equator. But this message was ridiculed by the Royal Geographical Society of Great Britain. And only in 1889, reports of Kilimanjaro were confirmed by the German geographer Hans Meyer and the Austrian climber Ludwig Purtsheller, who conquered the snow-capped peak of Kibo. It is interesting that back in 1989 there was still a guide who accompanied the pioneers. He lived 118 years. The mountain was originally located in British East Africa (now Kenya). But then Queen Victoria gave Kilimanjaro to her cousin as a gift. The borders were moved, and the mountain began to belong to the territory of German Tanganyika. Officially allowed to make ascents to persons not younger than 12 years. The youngest conqueror of the mountain was 11 years old, and the oldest was 74 years old. Although climbing Kilimanjaro is designed for tourists, not climbers, it is not as easy as it may seem to the uninitiated. First of all, because of the lack of oxygen at high altitude. Only 30-60% of people reach the top, the rest do not ascend to the end. Climbing is usually organized by the hotel. Tourists are accompanied by a guide, porters (1 for 2-3 people) and a cook who serves the table. Cooked and specially packaged food is taken at the hotel, and not dry rations, but full lunches and dinners. The higher the category of the hotel, the better and more varied the food. Alcoholic drinks and beer are ordered and paid separately.
DAR AS SALAAM
Dar es Salaam is the de facto capital of Tanzania, although officially the capital has been moved to Dodoma, located 480 km to the west. The name Dar es Salaam means “peaceful harbor” and was chosen by the founder of the city, Saidam Majit, Sultan of Zanzibar. The city is located at sea level and occupies about 90 sq. km. It has about 2 million inhabitants. Dar es Salaam is the largest city in Tanzania. Its rapid development began after 1961, when Tanzania gained independence. The history of the city dates back to 1857 with its founding by the Sultan of Zanzibar. German and British rule followed.
The first impression that the city makes is squalid buildings and degraded infrastructure. But there is a huge difference between the way ordinary people live and government officials, businessmen and foreigners.
The very word “Zanzibar” conjures up exotic and romantic associations. The origin of the name of the island is still debated. According to one version, the name comes from Zayn Zal Bar, which means “fair island”. According to another – from the Persian word Zenj, which is a corruption of Zang, meaning “black”, and the word Bar means shore.
In general, Zanzibar is not one island, but two: Zanzibar and Untua. The city of Zanzibar is located on the island of Untua. It’s just steeped in history.
Slave and spice trade (especially cloves) played a huge role in the history and development of Zanzibar. In the 19th century, Zanzibar was the world’s largest supplier of cloves. But the strongest hurricane of 1872 destroyed 2/3 of the plantations of cloves and coconut trees. After that, competitors from the Far East overtook Zanzibar in the production of this spice. In 1873, the slave market closed in Zanzibar. Due to its location, Zanzibar has been one of the largest trading centers in East Africa. It was visited by Assyrians, Arabs, Egyptians, Indians, Persians, Dutch and Chinese. At the end of the 15th century, during his historical journey to India, the island was visited by Vasco da Gama. Subsequently, famous African explorers visited the island with their expeditions: Burton, Speke and Livingston.
The cultural center of Zanzibar is Stone Town (Stone City), founded in the 19th century by Indian merchants. Stone Town, which now has 15,000 inhabitants, is the commercial center of Zanzibar. All the traditional houses on the island are built of wicker and mud. Later, houses were built from coral limestone with the addition of laterite.