Scientific institutions, monuments
Amphitheater of Caerleon
This amphitheater was built by the Romans in the 2nd century and is an important part of the excavations of an entire Roman military town of the 1st and 2nd centuries. The collected excavation finds can be viewed today in the Legionary Museum.
Rhondda Heritage Park, near Trehafod
This technical monument near the town of Trehafod gives a good insight into the work and life of the people who used to live here and who worked as miners. The place is close to the A470.
Spaceguard Center, near Knighton
The Spaceguard Center, a very interesting observatory near Knighton in central Wales, rises on a hill and offers impressive 360 ° views.
Techniquest is an interactive technology and science center that has been set up to introduce people to modern technology and science. The modern building is located in Cardiff (Cardiff Bay) on Stuart Street.
Big Pit: National Coal Museum (coal museum)
This museum is an old coal mine that was in operation until the 1980s. Here you can learn a lot about coal mining in Wales. It is located in Blaenafon in the county of Torfaen in south Wales.
National Museum Cardiff
The National Museum Cardiff is a museum dedicated to the archeology, art, crafts and natural history of Wales. It is one of the seven museums of the National Museum Wales, which are located in different locations in Wales. The museum is located in Cathays Park in Cardiff.
National Slate Museum (Slate Museum)
The National Slate Museum in Llanberis is located in north-west Wales in the region Gwynedd, which previously was one of the four Welsh kingdoms and principalities that had arisen in the 5th century after the retreat of the Romans.
National Waterfront Museum
The National Waterfront Museum in Swansea tells the story of industrialization and research in the country over the past 300 years. Located in Swansea on Oystermouth Road in the Maritime Quarter, it is one of the seven museums that make up the National Museum of Wales.
National Wool Museum (Wool Museum)
The museum introduces the history of wool and their processing. It is one of the seven museums that make up the National Museum of Wales. The museum is located near Newcastle.
National Roman Legion Museum
This museum, not far from the Caerleon Roman Fortress in Newport on the High Street, exhibits Roman evidence from the time of the Roman occupation of Great Britain and is open from mid-March to mid-October.
Welsh Folk Museum (Museum of Welsh Life)
This open-air museum in Cardiff introduces the life, culture, customs and history of the Welsh people. It was opened in 1948 under the name “Welsh Folk Museum” and is one of the seven museums that make up the National Museum of Wales.
Historical, Offa’s Dyke
Castles and fortified cities of King Edward I.
For details on this 1986 UNESCO World Heritage Site, see the top of the site.
Offa`s Dyke is a former military border wall between England and Wales. It was built by King Offa of Mercien from 757 to 796 over a length of 270 km. Offa was the first Anglo-Saxon to call himself the King of England. At the end of his reign he ruled all of England, which lay south of the Humber – a river on the east coast of northern England. Mercien was one of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms founded by the Angles north of the Thames in the 6th century. Nowadays, the 284 km long Offa’s Dyke Path is a long-distance hiking trail along the English-Welsh border and follows the historical course of Offa’s Dyke. The southern start is at Sedbury Cliffs on the Severn near Chepstow. From there it leads to Prestatyn in Northern Wales on the Irish Sea.
Palaces and castles
Wales has numerous medieval castles. Most of the castles were built by the Normans and especially by Edward I to fortify the Atlantic side. In the late Middle Ages they became the manorial residences of the feudal lords. Examples of such castles include:
This fortress was also built by Edward I and is evidence of particularly well thought-out strategies for repelling attackers. It has both a double fortress wall and a moat and a never-completed gate on the north side of the fortress.
Cardiff Castle, a medieval castle and mansion in one, is a Victorian structure that sprawls over the remains of an old Roman fort. The castle, in which the usurper Robert II was imprisoned until his death in 1134, was one of the buildings of the Marquis of Bute in the 19th century. The castle can of course be visited and offers an incredibly rich interior, in which every single centimeter has been decorated with loving details.
Caerleon Roman Fortress
Here you can find the remains of a Roman legionary camp from the 1st century, which the Romans called Isca Silurum. From the years 75 to almost 300 it served as the headquarters of the Roman Legio II Augusta. You can see the earlier fortifications, the watchtower, the baths and even the remains of the amphitheater there. The place is always associated with Camelot, the court of the mythical King Arthur and his round table. The Roman camp can be found in Caerleon, a district of Newport, in the High Street.
The castle, built between 1282 and 1330 by Master James of St George, is particularly impressive due to its unbelievable size and the fairytale-like design of the complex, which was originally designed not only as a military fortress, but also as a seat of government and a royal palace.
This gigantic Norman ring castle in south Wales was built between 1268 and 1271. The largest castle complex in Wales is also the second largest in all of Europe and is only surpassed by Windsor Castle. The very well-preserved fortress impresses with its artificial lakes and the leaning southeast tower, which were created for strategic reasons.
The fortress of Conwy Castle was built in the 13th century by King Edward I and adorns the small town of Conwy.
Unfortunately nothing more than ruins have survived from the Castle in Monmouth. It was also the place where the future King Henry V was born in 1387. Apart from the impressive castle, the small town of Monmouth is also worth seeing. It is one of the most beautiful cities in Wales and spreads out directly on Offa`s Dyke. It had served as the capital of Monmouthshire for 700 years and was able to retain the proud flair of the Middle Ages.
Weobley Castle, a compact castle rising from a picturesque landscape, was built between the late 13th and early 14th centuries. However, its southeast tower was never completed. The castle, which is still relatively well preserved today, was abandoned in 1666 at the latest.