Nicaragua. At the same time as the redevelopment of the Panama Canal was entering its final phase, the large Gran Canal project, the construction of a canal between the Caribbean and the Pacific, was surrounded by great turbulence throughout the year. At the end of September, an ecological and social impact assessment of the project was presented to a specially appointed government committee, and in November the committee gave a clear sign for the construction. But the locals, especially in the province of Chontale, protested in the thousands against the project they considered lacking transparency and environmental considerations. Particular concern was expressed about the consequences for the large Nicaragua lake, which will become part of the sea route through the country. According to COUNTRYAAH, Managua is the capital of Nicaragua which is located in North America. The Committee also noted that no fewer than 6,900 families, or 27,000 people, will be forced to relocate, and environmental organizations claimed that the correct figure is rather close to 100,000. In August, a local organization organized the largest demonstrations against the project with up to 15,000 participants since President Daniel Ortega signed the channel’s completion with the Chinese company Hong Kong Nicaragua Canal Development Company (HKND) in June 2013. In October, a protest march was held with thousands of participants to the capital Managua.
- Also see AbbreviationFinder.org for Nicaragua country abbreviations, including geography, history, economy and politics.
Even around the gold mine El Limón in the province of León, it became uneasy when police in the beginning of October with tear gas and rubber bullets were deployed to miners who demonstrated that three of them were dismissed on unsavory grounds. The mine was forced to close after the clashes, where a policeman was killed and 31 people injured.
A new chapter in the history of the country’s relations with the United States was written in August. Washington then lifted the restrictions imposed by Nicaragua in the 1990s for the confiscation of American property that the Sandinian government implemented in the 1980s.
A report supported by the World Bank, among others, was presented at the beginning of October and showed that poverty in Nicaragua, long one of Latin America’s poorest countries, decreased from 42% of the population in 2009 to 29% in 2014. The development was attributed to, among other things, the government’s successfully implemented poverty reduction programs and increased private transfers from the United States.
Dictionary of History
Nicaragua State of Isthmian Central America. Inhabited by various Amerindian peoples, in the 16th century. the Nicaragua was colonized by the Spaniards. In 1811 it passed under the Mexican empire of A. Itúrbide (1783-1824), upon whose fall it declared its independence. A period of liberal rule (up to 1844) was followed by twenty years of struggles between liberals and conservatives, which often expanded into Central American wars. In 1856 the adventurer W. Walker seized the presidency, later attempting to extend his dominion over Central America. During the subsequent period of conservative presidencies (1857-93), the pacified country progressed materially. The government of the liberal JS Zelaya, which established itself with the revolution of 1893, introduced radical reforms and fought against the growing interference of the USA, who in 1909 supported the revolutionary movement that overthrew Zelaya. In 1911 the conservative A. Díaz was elected president, asking for the intervention of North American troops; the US occupation lasted until ag. 1925 and resumed from 1926 to 1933. Between 1925 and 1927 a civil war broke out again between the conservative forces of Díaz and the liberal forces of JB Sacasa. Díaz was succeeded in 1928 by the liberal JM Moncada. Under the subsequent presidency of Sacasa began the rise of the Minister of War Anastasio Somoza García, who, supported by the National Liberal Party, was president from 1937 to 1947 and from 1951 to 1956, exercising de facto dictatorship and strongly opposing governments left of Central America. Somoza, who died in an attack in 1956, was succeeded by his son Luis Somoza Debayle. The National Liberal Party, and with it the Somoza family continued to dominate the political life of the country, first with R. Schick Gutiérrez (1963-66), then with the vice president and interior minister L. Guerrero Gutiérrez, then with the second son of Somoza Debayle, also named Anastasio, elected in 1967. In 1971 he dissolved Parliament, suspended the Constitution and assumed all powers. Somoza Debayle was re-elected in 1974, but in the meantime the opposition movement to the dictatorship was growing, in particular with the activity of the Frente sandinista de liberación nacional (FSLN). After the assassination of PJ Chamorro Cardenal, leader of the moderate opposition and editor of the independent newspaper La Prensa, the anti-government guerrilla turned into a general insurrection against the dictator, who left the country in 1979. Transformed into a party, the FSLN established a revolutionary government which concentrated its efforts on the rehabilitation of the Nicaragua, exhausted by the civil war, carrying out agrarian reform, the eradication of illiteracy and a first health system, but limiting democratic freedoms. The destabilizing action of the contras moved against the government, of which in March 1981 the leader of the FSLN D. Ortega Saavedra became head., the guerrillas who were supporters of the past regime who settled in Honduras and supported by the United States. In the political and presidential elections of November 1984, the FSLN won 67% of the votes and Ortega was confirmed head of state and executive, while the United States, continuing to support the anti-Sandinist guerrillas, promoted the trade embargo with serious repercussions on conditions economic and social (foreign debt, inflation, unemployment). The subsequent political and presidential elections, in Feb. 1990, thus saw the affirmation of the Unión nacional opositora (UNO) and its presidential candidate V. Barrios de Chamorro, widow of Chamorro Cardenal, while the FSLN became the main opposition force. The Sandinistas were again defeated in the 1996 and 2001 general elections: in 1996 the coalition of conservative parties imposed its presidential candidate, JA Alemán Lacayo; in 2001, the Partido liberal constitucionalista (PLC) won an absolute majority in the National Assembly and the victory over Ortega of its presidential candidate EJ Bolaños Geye, who promoted new free trade agreements with the USA that accompanied the accession of the Nicaragua al CAFTA (Central American free trade agreement). The 2006 elections brought D. Ortega back to the presidency, with a much more moderate program. In 2007 the territorial dispute with Honduras, dating back to an ancient border dispute, was resolved through a ruling by the International Court of Justice in The Hague.