Mexico – important dates
Area: 1,964,375 km² (land: 1,943,945 km², water: 20,430 km²).
Population: 113.7 million people (July 2011, CIA). Mestics (indigenous Spanish ancestors) 60%, Amerindian 30%, whites 9%, others 1%.
Population density: 58 people per km²
Population growth: 1.102% per year (2011, CIA)
Capital: Mexico City (8.7 million residents, 2006)
Highest point: Pico de Orizaba volcano, 5,700 m
Lowest point: Laguna Salada, -10 m
Form of government: According to Ehealthfacts, Mexico has been a presidential Federal Republic since 1917. The constitution dates from the same year; the last constitutional amendment was made in 1994. The bicameral parliament (Congreso de la Unión) consists of the Senate (Camara de Senadores) with 128 members (election every six years) and the House of Representatives (Camara Federal de Diputados) with 500 members (election every three years). The president exercises executive power and appoints the cabinet. The term of office of the President overlaps that of the Senate. Each Mexican state appoints its own governor and elects a House of Representatives. Mexico declared its independence from Spain in 1810, which was recognized by the mother country on August 24, 1821.
Administrative structure: 31 estados (Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan and Zacatecas) and a federal distrido.
Head of State and Government: President Enrique Pena Nieto, since December 1, 2012
Language: The official language in Mexico is Spanish, the Spanish colloquial language is mixed with numerous Aztec loan words. In addition, more than 80 Indian languages are spoken in the country, the most important of which are Maya, Náhuatl and Mixteco. Approx. 8% of the Mexican population only speak Indian languages. English is also spoken in larger cities.
Religion: 76.5% are Roman Catholic, 6.3% Protestant (1.4% Pentecostal, 1.1% Jova’s Witnesses, 3.8% others), including Jewish minorities
Local time: Three time zones run through Mexico:
South, Central and East Mexico, Mexico City (Central Standard Time): CET – 7 hours. From the first Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October: CET – 6 am.
The time difference to Central Europe is -7 hours in summer and winter.
Baja California Sur and the west coast to Puerto Vallarta (Mountain Standard Time): CET – 8 h. From the first Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October: CET – 7 am.
The time difference to Central Europe is -8 hours in summer and winter.
Baja California Norte (Pacific Standard Time): CET – 9 am. From the first Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October: CET – 8 am.
The time difference to Central Europe is -9 h in summer and winter.
International phone code: +52
Mains voltage: 110/120 V, 60 Hz; American two-pin flat plugs are used, so adapters are recommended.
Geography of Mexico
Most of Mexico is assigned to the North American continent, while the southern part is already part of the Central American land bridge. With an area of 1,972,540 km², of which 1,923,046 km² is land and 49,176 km² is water, the country is more than six times the size of Germany.
Here is an accurate topographic map of Mexico.
Mexico’s northern neighbor is the United States, and to the southeast, Mexico shares its borders with Belize and Guatemala. The coast to the Pacific Ocean is 8,200 km long, forAtlantic ocean3,200 km. Mexico has exclusive rights of use in the area up to 200 nautical miles (370 km) off the coast.
The highest point in Mexico with 5,700 m is reached on the volcano Pico de Orizaba, the lowest point with -10 m is in Mexicali, the capital of Baja California.
Mexico is largely made up of a 1,000 to 2,500 m high highland block, which has been highlighted on clear eastern and western breaklines. The highlands are characterized by extensive basin landscapes, the northern part (about 40% of the highland area) is barren and only sparsely populated. The adjoining mountain ranges are shaped very differently: while the eastern Sierra Madre Oriental is composed of parallel folds and steep strata ribs from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, the western Sierra Madre Occidental consists of volcanic, tertiary layers. Seen from the coastal lowlands, both peripheral mountains look like high walls.
In the south of the Sierra Madre Occidental is the Cordillera Neovolcánica, which consists of volcanic deposits. It is characterized by giant volcanoes as well as numerous volcanic cones and craters. It represents the southern edge of the Mexican highland block, in the fracture zone here the highland drops down to 1,000 m to the depression of the Río Balsas. Further south is the Sierra Madre del Sur in the west of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas.
In the northeast rises the flat limestone table of the Yucatán peninsula, most of which belongs to Mexico.
In summary, one can say that Mexico is very diverse, the variety of landscapes ranges from wetlands and deserts to rainforest-covered plains to alpine vegetation on the mountain tops.