The name of Ecuador is a simplification of its official name: Republic of Ecuador. This name was chosen months after the country separated from Gran Colombia, on August 14, 1830 in Riobamba. This name refers to the equatorial line of the earth, which passes very close to the city of Quito and crosses the national territory from east to west. The first reference that we have of the country in relation to the equatorial line is registered in Secret News of America, where the lands of Ecuador are mentioned as the jurisdiction of the Royal Court of Quito.
The data generated by INEC (Ecuadorian Institute of Statistics and Censuses), reports that in February 2009, approximately 14,000,000 people inhabit Ecuador. Regarding the sex of the population, it can be established that around 49.4% is made up of men, and 50.6% of women. These figures vary even more in favor of women in the provinces of the Ecuadorian central highlands. Approximately 54% of the population resides in urban centers, while the rest live in rural areas.
According to educationvv, Guayaquil is the most populated city in Ecuador, with around 3,800,000 residents in its metropolitan area in 2008. It is the center of concentration of the cities of the south of the coast, the main port of Ecuador through which approximately 70 enter and leave % of the country’s imports and exports. In second place is the metropolitan district of Quito, which has 2,400,000 residents, being the seat of government where the powers of the state are concentrated. The third city in the country is Cuenca with 450,000 residents. It was the second capital of the Inca empire and is an important cultural center of the country. It is followed by Manta with 300,000 residents, then there are other cities of great importance such as Ambato, Machala, Quevedo (where high quality cocoa is grown) Babahoyo, Santo Domingo, Portoviejo, Loja, Riobamba, Duran, Esmeraldas, and Salinas.
Ecuador’s economy is the eighth largest in Latin America and experienced an average growth of 4.6% between 2000 and 2006.
In 1998, the richest 10% of the population had 42.5% of the income, while the poorest 10% of the population had only 0.6% of the income. During the same year, 7.6% of public health spending went to 20% of the poor population, while 20% of the rich population received 38.1% of this same spending.
Poverty rates were higher for indigenous, Afro-descendant and rural populations, reaching 87% of the native population.
Oil represents 40% of exports and contributes to maintaining a positive trade balance. Since the late 1960s, the exploitation of oil increased production and its reserves are estimated at approximately 280 million barrels.
In the agricultural sector, Ecuador is an important exporter of bananas (first place worldwide in its production and export), of flowers, and the eighth world producer of cocoa. Its production of shrimp, sugar cane, rice, cotton, corn, hearts of palm and coffee is also significant.. Its timber wealth includes large areas of eucalyptus throughout the country, as well as mangroves. Pines and cedars are planted in the Sierra region; walnuts and romerillo; and balsa wood, in the Guayas river basin. On the other hand, the industry is mainly concentrated in Guayaquil, the largest producing center in the country, and in Quito where in recent years the industry has grown considerably, but there are also some factories in Cuenca. Industrial production is mainly directed to the domestic market. Despite the above, there is a limited export of industrially manufactured or processed products. These include canned foods, spirits, jewelry, and furniture.
In April 2007, Ecuador fully paid its debt to the IMF, thus ending a stage of intervention by this Agency in the country. In 2007, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) was created, based in Quito, and whose first Secretary General is former Ecuadorian President Rodrigo Borja Cevallos. It has also participated in the creation of the Bank of the South.
The predominant religion is Roman Catholic, but there are other Christian confessions, which have recently had a great expansion.
Ecuadorian indigenous (Indians) often fuse Catholicism with their traditional beliefs, but many communities still retain their ancient beliefs and practices of worshiping the earth, mountains, and the sun.
The colonial religious architecture of Ecuador is predominantly Baroque, its solid constructions with facades built with elaborately carved rocks. The civil tends, on the contrary, to simplicity and elegance, in this style they predominate in the main buildings, in cities, towns and villages.
Literature has many creators:
- Abdón Ubidia, an Ecuadorian writer considered one of the most representative and relevant voices in modern Ecuadorian literature. In 2012 he was the winner of the ” Eugenio Espejo Literature Prize “, awarded to him by the then Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa.
Spanish   is the language of official use in the Republic of Ecuador. However, there are other languages and dialects that are used by the various ethnic groups in the country: such as the Quichua Shimi, Awapit, Chapalachi, Tsafiqui, Paicoca, A’ingae, Huaotirio, Shuar-chichan, and Záparo. Within these languages, Quichua is the one with the greatest diffusion. It is spoken in the towns of the Sierra and in the Amazon, where there are two dialects: the Quichua of Napo and that of Pastaza.