In 2015, Bhutan’s politics were still in transition following the adoption of its first democratic constitution in 2008. The country was governed by its fourth Prime Minister, Tshering Tobgay, from the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), who had been elected in 2013. The PDP held a majority of seats in Parliament and was considered to be the most influential political party. Other parties included the Druk Phuensum Tshogpa (DPT) and Bhutan Kuen-Nyam Party (BKP). The monarch still held a great deal of influence over politics, although his role was largely ceremonial. See ehealthfacts for Bhutan in the year of 2005.
The government was focused on strengthening democracy and promoting economic growth through policies aimed at reducing poverty and inequality. In addition, the government sought to promote environmental sustainability and renewable energy sources. As part of this effort, Bhutan pledged to remain carbon-neutral into the future. This commitment earned it recognition as one of the few countries to have achieved such an ambitious goal.
Bhutan. India, Bhutan’s great neighbor in the south, repeatedly asked Bhutan for support in the fight against the armed Christian separatist movement National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB), which is accused by the Indian government of two fatal attacks in the state of Assam in 2014. The Bhutanese the authorities assured that there were no NDFB camps in the country and that anti-Indian activity was not tolerated in Bhutan.
According to COUNTRYAAH, Thimphu is the capital of Bhutan which is located in Southern Asia. Transport of persons and goods between Bhutan and neighboring countries Nepal, India and Bangladesh will be much easier. This was clear after the four countries signed an agreement on simplified traffic with motor vehicles across national borders. India has been a driving force in the process of developing the agreement that strengthens regional cooperation. The improved communication opportunities are expected to increase trade in southern Asia by around 50%.
- Also see AbbreviationFinder.org for Bhutan country abbreviations, including geography, history, economy and politics.
History. – The democratization process of Bhutan, promoted directly by the monarchy, continued even after the abdication – which took place in December 2006 – of King Jigme Singye Wangchuk, in whose place his son Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk took the throne. In 2007, in view of the first parliamentary elections, the registration of parties, hitherto illegal in the country, was allowed; on December 31 the voters also voted the first 15 representatives to the National Council, the non-partisan upper house whose composition was completed in the following month of January. The consultations for the National Assembly – Lower House of Parliament – were held in March 2008 and saw the clear affirmation of the Druk phuensum thsogpa (Party for Peace and Prosperity of Bhutan, DPT), which won 45 seats against 2 in the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). The democratically elected Parliament adopted the Constitution, the result of a work begun in 2001 and the drafts of which had been the subject of consultations in the country by the will of the crown. The Charter guaranteed freedom of speech, expression and religion, sanctioned the separation of powers and defined the institutional structure of the country; however, the provisions on citizenship appeared to be problematic, on the basis of which many members of the Nepalese community in Bhutan were excluded from the enjoyment of this right. The text also provided for the obligation for the king to abdicate upon reaching the age of 65. Local elections were also scheduled for 2008, but they were postponed to 2011 and partly to 2012.
In international politics, in 2007 Bhutan and India signed a new version of the friendship treaty between the two countries, eliminating the reference to the Indian ‘guide’ in Bhutanese foreign policy present in the 1949 text. The kingdom also continued its dialogue with China for the resolution of some territorial disputes, without however establishing official diplomatic relations with Beijing.
The issue of Bhutanese refugees of Nepalese ethnicity also remained partially unresolved, forced to flee to Nepal in the early 1990s due to the discriminatory policies adopted against them in Bhutan: in 2014, around 25,000 refugees were still housed in two reception camps of Nepal.