The transition from monarchy to republic (1918-20)
With the military defeat, the structure of the Habsburg monarchy collapsed. The parties of the Reichsrat acknowledged the right of the peoples to self-determination. On October 16, 1918, Emperor Karl I proclaimed a “People’s Manifesto” in which he drafted the basic features of a new state with a monarchical head to be built up according to national principles. Each “tribe” should found its own national community on its territory within the framework of a federal state; The Reichsrat delegates of each “nation” of the Habsburg state were supposed to constitute themselves as a national council. With the restructuring of the Danube monarchy, Charles I tried in vain to counteract the dissolution of his empire.
In connection with the “People’s Manifesto”, the Reichsrat members of the German-speaking settlement areas of the Zisleithan half of the Reich declared themselves in Vienna on October 21, 1918 as the Provisional National Assembly of the independent German-Austrian state. On November 3, 1918, the (last) imperial-royal government under H. Lammasch concluded the armistice with the Allies and subsequently dissolved the imperial-royal army. After Charles I renounced the government and the Lammasch government (11/11/1918) resigned in the wake of the November Revolution, the Provisional National Assembly proclaimed the Republic of “German Austria” on November 12, 1918 and declared it part of the “German Republic” (German Austria; not actually carried out). The social democrat K. Renner officially took over the leadership of the government as State Chancellor, after he had been working as head of the State Chancellery on the building of a new government since October 30th – parallel to the still incumbent Lammasch government. From all parties represented in the National Assembly, he formed a coalition government, which subsequently introduced proportional representation (instead of the previous majority vote) and the right to vote for women. From the elections of February 16, 1919, the Social Democratic Party (SP) emerged as the strongest political force; it won 72 seats, the Christian Social Party (CP) 69, German national groups 26 and other 3. K. Seitz was President of the National Assembly 1919/20 at the same time head of state. As State Chancellor, Renner headed a government of the grand coalition of SP and CP, which included important personalities from both parties: J. Fink (Vice Chancellor, CP), O. Bauer (exterior, SP), J. Deutsch (Heerwesen, SP), J. Schumpeter (finance, independent) and Ferdinand Hanusch (* 1866, † 1923); Social Administration, SP; leading member of the Austrian labor movement, 1907-18 member of the Reichsrat). In addition to the serious problems of the economic rebuilding and the catastrophic food situation (especially in Vienna), the Renner government dealt with revolutionary currents domestically, the v. a. found support in the Bavarian and Hungarian Soviet Republic, and to deal with the endangerment of the national territory through territorial claims of the mostly newly formed neighboring states; Especially in Carinthia there was fighting (January – May 1919) between Carinthian volunteer associations and troops of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia). On April 3, 1919, the National Assembly abolished all rulership rights of the Habsburgs, confiscated their property and expelled all members of the House of Habsburg-Lothringen from the country, provided they did not renounce their privileges (“Habsburg Law”). With numerous social laws (including the introduction of the eight-hour day and working leave, regulation of women and child labor, provisions on collective agreements and night work, the introduction of chambers of labor), the government sought to reduce social tensions and drive back revolutionary currents. On September 10, 1919, under pressure from the victorious powers, the National Assembly adopted the Peace Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Provisions on collective agreements and night work, introduction of chambers of labor) the government sought to reduce social tensions and drive back revolutionary currents. On September 10, 1919, under pressure from the victorious powers, the National Assembly adopted the Peace Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Provisions on collective agreements and night work, introduction of chambers of labor) the government sought to reduce social tensions and drive back revolutionary currents. On September 10, 1919, under pressure from the victorious powers, the National Assembly adopted the Peace Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Paris suburb contracts) to: The Republic of Austria was banned from using the name »German Austria« and the »Anschluss« to the German Reich, as well as renouncing imposed on South Tyrol and the Sudeten German states; Burgenland came to Austria. In addition to Germany, Austria was charged with sole guilt for the First World War.
Construction and crises (1920-26)
Characterized by mutual distrust in the democratic behavior of the other partner, the grand coalition of CP and SP broke up in June 1920; However, for the adoption of the Federal Constitution (October 1, 1920; in force since November 10, 1920) and the holding of elections (October 17, 1920), both parties formed a “proportional government” chaired by M. Mayr (CP). In the elections to the National Council (1920, 1923 and 1927), the CP prevailed over the SP as the strongest political force and, in coalition with smaller bourgeois parties, the Greater German People’s Party (GVP) and the Landbund (LB), usually the Federal Chancellor. The first Federal President was M. Hainisch, who was not a party to the party. While the SP had been in opposition at the federal level since 1920, it built in Vienna under the mayor Jakob Reumann (* 1853, † 1925); 1919–23) and K. Seitz (1923–34) shaped their position of power and shaped the modern profile of the city to a large extent through reforms (»Red Vienna«).
According to Abbreviationfinder, the internal and external consolidation of the newly formed republic was the decisive problem of the first federal governments under the Federal Chancellors Mayr (July 1920 to June 1921), J. Schober (independent; June 1921 to May 1922), I. Seipel (CP; May 1922 to November 1924) and R. Ramek (CP; November 1924 to October 1926).
On October 10, 1920, the population of southern Carinthia decided in a referendum (provided for in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye) to remain with Austria. Uncovered by the peace treaty and without the approval of the Mayr government, votes took place in Tyrol and Salzburg in the spring of 1921 on the “annexation” of Austria to the German Reich, which, however, remained ineffective under international law. In Vorarlberg there were tendencies towards unification with Switzerland. From a sociopolitical point of view, the strained food situation and the collapse of the currency (“galloping” inflation) exacerbated domestic political tensions. Recognizing that the Sudeten German territories remained in the Czechoslovak state association, the Schober government received a loan of 500 million Czech crowns in the Lana Treaty (near Prague, December 16, 1921) (under severe criticism from the Social Democrats). In negotiations with the governments of France, Great Britain, Italy and Czechoslovakia created federal chancellors Seipel the prerequisites for a renovation v. a. of the state budget: In the Geneva Protocols of October 4, 1922, Austria’s four negotiating partners guaranteed a loan of 650 million gold crowns, but demanded a four-year financial control of the League of Nations and a waiver of the “Anschluss” with the German as an indispensable prerequisite Rich. Against the resistance of the Social Democrats (“incapacitation” of Austria by the League of Nations), the National Council adopted the Geneva Protocols. With the introduction of the shilling currency (10,000 kroner = 1 shilling) under the Ramek government (December 1924), the restructuring of the state finances was completed.