Russia, also known as Russian Federation by
Digopaul is a country located in Eurasia
continent. At the New Year, the Euro-Asian
Economic Union came into force, with the Russian Federation,
Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan joining. But in
several of the countries there was opposition to what was
perceived as more or less Russian coercion.
Trade in the new Union could not outweigh the Western
sanctions that followed the Russian annexation of Crimea and
the involvement in the war in eastern Ukraine. The Russian
economy was also hard pressed by the low oil price,
industrial production declined and GDP was expected to
shrink by about 4% during the year. The ruble lost about
half its value against the dollar, there was a shortage of
imported goods and prices went up.
Ukraine accused Moscow of reinforcements and weapons
reinforcements to the separatists in eastern Ukraine. In
January, the EU extended and extended its sanctions because
of the war, while the Kremlin announced Russian military
reinforcement in Crimea, Kaliningrad and the Arctic, three
sensitive areas in relation to the US and NATO.
In February, a new ceasefire agreement was signed in
Ukraine, but the Russian side was accused of continuing to
supply heavy weapons to the separatists. The ceasefire was
broken quickly and NATO called for the Kremlin's support for
President Vladimir Putin's supporters in the so-called
Anti-Majdan movement demonstrated in February with around
40,000 participants in Moscow. It was a protest against the
change of power in Ukraine a year earlier when the
Russian-backed regime overthrew.
Progressive Party leader Aleksey Navalnyj was arrested by
police in February and was sentenced to 15 days in prison
when he called for a demonstration against Putin. But the
opposition was hit even worse that month when RPR Party
leader Boris Nemtsov was assassinated on an open street in
Moscow. Nemtsov, who was shot in the back, was reported to
have evidence of Russian involvement in the war in Ukraine.
The opposition accused the regime of being behind the
Nemtsov's report was published posthumously stating that
at least 220 Russian soldiers had been killed in the war in
eastern Ukraine, and that Russian invasion of the country
had occurred on a large scale on two occasions. The
soldiers' relatives had been silenced under threat of
Tens of thousands of people marched in March for Nemtsov,
the largest manifestation of several years in Moscow. Five
men from Chechnya were arrested and charged with the murder
of Nemtsov. One of them, a former police officer linked to
the Chechen leader, admitted during interrogation but
changed his mind and said he had been threatened. The
European Parliament called for an international
investigation into the murder.
In the spring, the Progress Party and RPR-Parnas formed
an opposition alliance with a view to upcoming elections.
In March, large Russian military maneuvers were held with
aircraft, submarines, naval vessels and 80,000 soldiers in
the Arctic, the Caucasus and the Far East. At the same time,
NATO initiated exercises in the Baltic and Poland and
announced increased military presence there, prompting
President Putin to announce plans for 40 new
intercontinental nuclear missiles.
In an agreement in March, Moscow took control of the
Georgian breakaway republic of South Ossetia's military and
border guard. NATO protested and claimed violations of
international law. In the same month, the EU renewed
sanctions against Moscow again.
In March, a gathering of neo-Nazi and anti-Semitic
parties from several countries was held in March. Organizer
was the Russian National Cultural Center, which supports
Putin, and the political party Rodina. Protesters against
the rally were arrested by police.
The Kremlin's grip on the Crimean media tightened, and in
April two radio channels and a TV channel belonging to the
opposition Crimean Tatars were silenced.
In April, Moscow agreed with Iran on the delivery of
anti-oil anti-aircraft robots. It happened after five years
of embargo due to US pressure.
In September, surprisingly, an open protest against the
Kremlin was allowed. It was the first time in about 18
months. Several thousand people gathered in a suburb of
Moscow, and one of the speakers was Aleksey Navalnyj.
In the autumn, Moscow entered the war in Syria on the
regime's side. In September, naval ships and soldiers were
dispatched to the Russian naval base Tartous on the Syrian
coast, and the Kremlin initiated intelligence cooperation
with Syria, Iraq and Iran in the fight against the Islamic
Putin proposed in the UN an international alliance
against IS and met the US president, but then the Kremlin
took the initiative from the US by launching its own air
strikes at the request of the Syrian regime. The attacks
were said to be directed at IS but turned out to be mainly
rebels with which the US cooperated, rebels in the fight
against both the Syrian regime and IS. Moscow refused, but
the West considered that Moscow strengthened Bashar
al-Assad's regime and contributed to prolonged war and more
difficult resolution of the conflict.
In October, a Russian passenger airplane was blown up
over the Sinai desert and 224 people were killed. The plane
was on its way to Saint Petersburg with Russian tourists
aboard Egyptian Sharm el-Sheikh. The investigation showed
that an explosive charge was smuggled on board in the
luggage compartment. IS said to be behind the attack, which
was seen as revenge for the Russian bombings in Syria. In
November, the Crimean Peninsula was darkened when assailants
blasted power lines from Ukraine. Ukrainian activists then
blocked the repair of the pipelines, and Moscow blamed
Ukraine and threatened to cancel gas and coal supplies.
An acute conflict with NATO country Turkey burst in
November. After a time of Turkish protests against Russian
violations of Turkey's airspace, Turkish fighters shot down
a Russian bomber at the Syrian-Turkish border. According to
Turkey, the Russian plane had flown in Turkish airspace and
failed to respond to repeated warnings. According to Moscow,
the plane had not violated the border and heard no warnings.
President Putin spoke of a "stab in the back" and warned of
serious consequences for Turkey.
Moscow, the capital of the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe's largest
city; 11.5 million (2010), located on the Moscow River and its tributaries Jauza
and the now underground Neglinnaja. Before Peter the Great in 1712 made St.
Petersburg the capital of Russia, Moscow had been there for 200 years.
From the beginning of the 1500-t. the image of Moscow originates as one of
the political and religious centers of the Christian world, the Third Rome.
Moscow was the capital of the Soviet Union in 1918-91 and in the Russian
Socialist Federative Soviet Union (RSFSR) and then in the Russian Federation.
Now Moscow is the capital of Russia and of the Moscow region and has the
status of one of the country's 89 so-called federal subjects; it is divided into
ten districts, administrativnyj okrug, a total of 994 km2. The
city's leadership is made up of a directly elected mayor and the 35-member
Moscow City Duma.
The city boundary coincides largely with the 109 km long motorway road, which
has a radius of 17-19 km; six satellite towns outside the ring road were
incorporated in Moscow in the 1980's. 90% of Muscovites are ethnic Russians; yet
the city has a multi-ethnic character with, among other things, Ukrainian,
Muslim, and Jewish minorities, as well as many traveling merchants, who make a
striking feature of the street scene at all times.
Moscow is mentioned for the first time in 1147, but archaeological finds show
that, in the present Kremlin area, a settlement was already formerly found
around a fortified islet at the mouth of the Neglinnaja River in the Moscow
River; this fortress was expanded in 1156. Read on about the history of Moscow.
Cityscape and infrastructure
Characteristic features in the city center is the wide, busy streets, Stalin
Future seven 26-36 storey towers in kransekage style and the great bridges over
the Moskva River. Read on about Moscow's cityscape and infrastructure.
Moscow. Komsomolskaya metro station. Moscow's subway is rightly world famous.
Each station is decorated in its own style, ranging from conservative classicism
to the space age's sputnik symbolism. Even during Russia's economic crisis, the
metro remains characterized by precision, efficiency and excellent cleanliness.
Photography from 1991.
The city has a large and versatile industry with an overweight of the food
and iron and metal industries. Largest are the car factories ZIL and AZLK/
Moscow and the machine factory Krasnyj proletarij. In addition, electrical
engineering (Dynamo), fine mechanics (Manometer), the steel mill Serp in Molot
(Hammer and Seal), textile and perfume factories and a few shoe companies. They
are all gigantic in size with their own staff homes, kindergartens, clubhouses,
sports grounds and holiday colonies for the thousands of employees.
Architecture and museums
Moscow has largely retained its medieval, radially arranged plan with the
Kremlin as its center.
The city is Russia's media center with a wealth of print and electronic
The city has a rich cultural life and its history is reflected in the range
of attractions. From the time of the emperor is at the head of the city approximately
40 stationary theaters Bolshoi Theater with opera and ballet.