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Yearbook 2015

Russia, also known as Russian Federation by Digopaul is a country located in Eurasia continent. At the New Year, the Euro-Asian Economic Union came into force, with the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan joining. But in several of the countries there was opposition to what was perceived as more or less Russian coercion.

2015 RussiaTrade in the new Union could not outweigh the Western sanctions that followed the Russian annexation of Crimea and the involvement in the war in eastern Ukraine. The Russian economy was also hard pressed by the low oil price, industrial production declined and GDP was expected to shrink by about 4% during the year. The ruble lost about half its value against the dollar, there was a shortage of imported goods and prices went up.

2015 Russia

Ukraine accused Moscow of reinforcements and weapons reinforcements to the separatists in eastern Ukraine. In January, the EU extended and extended its sanctions because of the war, while the Kremlin announced Russian military reinforcement in Crimea, Kaliningrad and the Arctic, three sensitive areas in relation to the US and NATO.

In February, a new ceasefire agreement was signed in Ukraine, but the Russian side was accused of continuing to supply heavy weapons to the separatists. The ceasefire was broken quickly and NATO called for the Kremlin's support for the separatists.

President Vladimir Putin's supporters in the so-called Anti-Majdan movement demonstrated in February with around 40,000 participants in Moscow. It was a protest against the change of power in Ukraine a year earlier when the Russian-backed regime overthrew.

Progressive Party leader Aleksey Navalnyj was arrested by police in February and was sentenced to 15 days in prison when he called for a demonstration against Putin. But the opposition was hit even worse that month when RPR Party leader Boris Nemtsov was assassinated on an open street in Moscow. Nemtsov, who was shot in the back, was reported to have evidence of Russian involvement in the war in Ukraine. The opposition accused the regime of being behind the murder.

Nemtsov's report was published posthumously stating that at least 220 Russian soldiers had been killed in the war in eastern Ukraine, and that Russian invasion of the country had occurred on a large scale on two occasions. The soldiers' relatives had been silenced under threat of prosecution.

Tens of thousands of people marched in March for Nemtsov, the largest manifestation of several years in Moscow. Five men from Chechnya were arrested and charged with the murder of Nemtsov. One of them, a former police officer linked to the Chechen leader, admitted during interrogation but changed his mind and said he had been threatened. The European Parliament called for an international investigation into the murder.

In the spring, the Progress Party and RPR-Parnas formed an opposition alliance with a view to upcoming elections.

In March, large Russian military maneuvers were held with aircraft, submarines, naval vessels and 80,000 soldiers in the Arctic, the Caucasus and the Far East. At the same time, NATO initiated exercises in the Baltic and Poland and announced increased military presence there, prompting President Putin to announce plans for 40 new intercontinental nuclear missiles.

In an agreement in March, Moscow took control of the Georgian breakaway republic of South Ossetia's military and border guard. NATO protested and claimed violations of international law. In the same month, the EU renewed sanctions against Moscow again.

In March, a gathering of neo-Nazi and anti-Semitic parties from several countries was held in March. Organizer was the Russian National Cultural Center, which supports Putin, and the political party Rodina. Protesters against the rally were arrested by police.

The Kremlin's grip on the Crimean media tightened, and in April two radio channels and a TV channel belonging to the opposition Crimean Tatars were silenced.

In April, Moscow agreed with Iran on the delivery of anti-oil anti-aircraft robots. It happened after five years of embargo due to US pressure.

In September, surprisingly, an open protest against the Kremlin was allowed. It was the first time in about 18 months. Several thousand people gathered in a suburb of Moscow, and one of the speakers was Aleksey Navalnyj.

In the autumn, Moscow entered the war in Syria on the regime's side. In September, naval ships and soldiers were dispatched to the Russian naval base Tartous on the Syrian coast, and the Kremlin initiated intelligence cooperation with Syria, Iraq and Iran in the fight against the Islamic State (IS).

Putin proposed in the UN an international alliance against IS and met the US president, but then the Kremlin took the initiative from the US by launching its own air strikes at the request of the Syrian regime. The attacks were said to be directed at IS but turned out to be mainly rebels with which the US cooperated, rebels in the fight against both the Syrian regime and IS. Moscow refused, but the West considered that Moscow strengthened Bashar al-Assad's regime and contributed to prolonged war and more difficult resolution of the conflict.

In October, a Russian passenger airplane was blown up over the Sinai desert and 224 people were killed. The plane was on its way to Saint Petersburg with Russian tourists aboard Egyptian Sharm el-Sheikh. The investigation showed that an explosive charge was smuggled on board in the luggage compartment. IS said to be behind the attack, which was seen as revenge for the Russian bombings in Syria. In November, the Crimean Peninsula was darkened when assailants blasted power lines from Ukraine. Ukrainian activists then blocked the repair of the pipelines, and Moscow blamed Ukraine and threatened to cancel gas and coal supplies.

An acute conflict with NATO country Turkey burst in November. After a time of Turkish protests against Russian violations of Turkey's airspace, Turkish fighters shot down a Russian bomber at the Syrian-Turkish border. According to Turkey, the Russian plane had flown in Turkish airspace and failed to respond to repeated warnings. According to Moscow, the plane had not violated the border and heard no warnings. President Putin spoke of a "stab in the back" and warned of serious consequences for Turkey.

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