Netherlands. Justice Minister Ivo Opstelten and Secretary of State Fred Teeven were forced to resign in March, after they were convicted of providing incorrect information about a court case that Teeven handled when he was a prosecutor in 2000. In December, Anouchka van Miltenburg, President Mark Rutte, also succeeded barely a margin away from a formal reprimand by Parliament because of the deal, which involved blacking out paid compensation to a convicted felon.
According to COUNTRYAAH, Amsterdam is the capital of Netherlands which is located in Western Europe. A government crisis threatened in April when the two government parties could not agree on refugee policy. The acute crisis resolved but bitter contradictions persisted and support for Geert Wilder’s xenophobic PVV (Freedom Party) grew. Around 46,000 people were in asylum facilities when the government, after consultation with the municipalities, decided at the end of November to establish almost the same number of places. However, Prime Minister Mark Rutte warned that the EU could collapse, “like the Roman Empire” unless the large influx of migrants was stopped.
The last remnants of the 193 Dutch killed in a crash in Ukraine in 2014 flew home in May. The Swedish Transport Administration later presented an investigation showing that the plane crashed after it was hit by a Russian-made air defense robot. Who fired the robot did not show up.
Following a class-action lawsuit against the state, a court ordered the government to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by at least a quarter by 2020. According to environmental organizations, the court order was the first of its kind in the world. The reason stated was that the state is obliged to protect citizens from the threat posed by climate change. Parliament later voted to phase out coal power in the country despite the opposition of the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy), the largest government party.
The name Amsterdam appears for the first time in a source note from 1275. The older parts of Amsterdam emerged at the mouth of the river Amstel in the Zuiderzee. Amsterdam first appeared as an important fishing location, but gained city rights as early as 1306. In conflict with Hansan’s interests, Amsterdam developed during the late Middle Ages into a major transit destination in northwestern Europe. During this time, a successful textile industry was established in the city.
Amsterdam’s true heyday began during the Dutch War of Independence against the Spaniards, especially since Antwerp was blocked by the Netherlands after 1585. In doing so, Antwerp lost its leading position, and several of its functions were taken over by Amsterdam, which became the largest city in the new United Netherlands (roughly the equivalent of the present Netherlands). With the formation of the Dutch East India Company in 1602, a significant step was taken towards Amsterdam’s position as a significant transocean maritime city. Amsterdam’s bank was founded in 1609, and the city soon developed into the financial center for the whole of Europe. In Amsterdam’s financial institutions, foreign exchange transactions were provided, and credits were distributed to nations and business companies throughout the world. Bankers in Amsterdam became the ultimate capital source for several merchant houses in the European countries, including Sweden. The city also experienced a period of cultural flourishing.
The explanation for Amsterdam’s heyday, which lasted until the second half of the 18th century, can be sought in several factors. On the one hand, Amsterdam as a successor to Antwerp became a focal point for the new trade routes that had arisen through the discoveries of the New World. On the one hand, the city was able to benefit from the personal resources it provided after the division of the Spanish Netherlands by immigration of political and religious refugees, especially Protestants but also Jews. From the mid-16th century to the beginning of the 17th century, the city’s population tripled. Although the United Kingdom was not rich in commodities, it was able to make a large number of merchant vessels available for world trade.
Following an international trade crisis, Amsterdam fell into the shadow of trade centers such as London and Hamburg in the latter part of the 18th century. However, the importance of the city increased again during the second half of the 19th century, after the canal links with the North Sea and the Rhine had been expanded. During the German occupation of 1940–45, approximately 70,000 were deported by the city’s Jewish residents; By the end of the occupation period, much of Amsterdam’s population was starving. The city became the center of the so-called youth revolt around 1970. In this way, Amsterdam followed an old tradition of tolerance and freedom, which had characterized the city as early as the end of the 16th century, in the division of the Dutch provinces.