Laos. According to
COUNTRYAAH, Laos and China agreed to begin construction of a
high-speed rail line between the countries. The 420-mile
stretch will be completed by 2020 at a cost of $ 6.3
billion. The line is later thought to be extended to other
countries in Southeast Asia.
Laos prepared for the 2016 presidency of the ASEAN
regional cooperation body. Barack Obama is then expected to
be the first US president to visit Laos.
The Laotian government showed no signs of postponing
disputed dam projects on the Mekong River as environmental
groups and even criticized neighboring countries Vietnam and
Cambodia. Nor was any progress achieved in clarifying what
happened to agricultural expert Sombath Somphone, one of the
critics of the projects, which disappeared in December 2012.
In the 14th century, the feudal Burmese nobleman, Sam Sen
Tal, assembled the northeastern part of what is today
Thailand with most of what is today Laos, thus forming the
thriving kingdom of Lang Xang - the Land of a million
Elephants. Towards the end of the 18th century, the kingdom
was divided into three: Champassac, Vientiane and Luang
Prabang. By the early 19th century, Thailand had brought all
three countries under its control. In 1827, Vientiane Prince
Tiao Anuvong was at the forefront of a nationalist rebellion
that was bloodied. When the French arrived in 1893, they
made the kingdom of Luang Prabang a protectorate, and at the
same time the rest of the country was made into the colony
1945 First independence
The entire region was occupied by the Japanese during
World War II. Following the Japanese capitulation, an
independence movement was instigated in Vientiane by the
Petsarath princes, Suvana Fuma (leader of the National
Progressive Party) and their step brother Tiao Sufanuvong
(who led Neo Lao Issara, Laos National United Front). In
September 1945, they formed a provisional government and
proclaimed the country's independence - across Sisavang Vong
who had been king since 1904.
In the spring of 1946, France again occupied the country,
and the Provisional Pathet Lao government decided to seek
refuge in Bangkok, from which it led the opposition to the
troops of the colonial power. This movement took the name
Lao Issara (Free Laos).
On 19 July 1949, an agreement was concluded between
France and Laos granting the country independence "within
the framework of the French Union". The leaders of Lao
Issara - notably the Petsarath and Sufanuvong princes - felt
that the agreement provided only a superficial independence,
while Suvana Fuma accepted the terms. The opposition
coalition therefore threw itself into active opposition to
the French. Its military triumphs secured the far better
conditions when a new independence agreement was signed in
The contradictions between Katay Sasorith and the Suvana
Fuma government and Pathet Lao were resolved in November
1957. It was agreed that Pathet Lao should enter the
country's political life under the name of Neo Lao Haksat
(Laos Patriotic Front) under the leadership of the "Red
Prince" Tiao Sufanuvong.
The May 1958 election was won by the Left. Suvana Fuma's
ruling party therefore joined with the Independent Party in
the so-called "Association of Laos People" and together they
obtained a fragile parliamentary majority.
Also, the supplementary elections together years were won
by the left, and a center-left government formed by the
źneutral╗ Suvana Fuma and with Sufanuvong as planning
1958 The United States intervenes. Dictatorship
The sharp reaction of the United States and its threat of
suspending financial assistance to the country undermined
the government which fell in August and was replaced by the
Committee in defense of national interests. With support
from the United States and Thailand, the new government
cracked down on Pathet Lao, forcing the movement and
Sufanuvong out into the forests of the northern part of the
country and back to the armed struggle.
In late 1959, the military directly assumed power. At
that time, Pathet Lao was already controlling the provinces
of the north and the central parts of the country.
After a successful military offensive, General Fumi
Nosavang's troops captured Vientiane on December 13, 1960,
sending Pathet Lao's forces on the run, which had been
holding the capital for several days. Violent bombings that
cost about 1,500 killed preceded this conquest.
The "Anti-Communist Revolutionary Committee" led by Fumi
Nosavang and Prince Bun Um now received support from
Thailand and the United States and considered themselves the
legitimate government of the country. In return, on December
20, 1960, Prince Suvana Fuma and Sufanuvong signed a
declaration in favor of forming a national unity government.
The "neutrals" were now approaching Pathet Lao. By the
end of 1960, half of the country was under the control of
the Pathet Lao guerrillas, and a similar portion was under
the control of the "neutral" forces.
At the initiative of the United Kingdom and the Soviet
Union, negotiations were held in Geneva in 1961 for a
peaceful settlement of the conflict - similar to the
Vientiane agreement of 1957. In June, the 3 princes Bun Um,
Suvana Fuma and Sufanuvong issued a joint communication, who
signed a definitive agreement on the formation of a national
The US invasion of Vietnam led to the
internationalization of the war and the superpower launched
bombing of Laos. In 1970, 500 bombings were carried out
daily against the country. Over the course of 9 years, the
United States threw more bombs on Laos than had been thrown
in Europe during World War II.
After a decisive military offensive, in 1973 Pathet Lao
succeeded in forcing a ceasefire. A government was formed
with Suvana Fuma at the head of representatives of the
government of Vientiane and Pathet Lao. The United States'
final defeat in Vietnam in 1975 (see the Vietnam War)
deprived the Laotian right wing of its sole ally.