Egypt. At the beginning of the year, the country's
president Hosni Mubarak, along with his sons, were freed in
a case of embezzlement. It was the second time in a short
time that the court freed Mubarak from serious charges in
connection with the bloody revolt in 2011. Mubarak's
successor, Muhammad Mursi, however, was sentenced to death
in May for being sentenced to prison riots in January 2011.
During the year, the death sentences were set against the
183 members of the Muslim Brotherhood who were accused of
attacking a police station in 2013. Without explanation, the
court later upheld the judgments against some thirty members
of the Brotherhood, including its leader Mohammed Badie.
COUNTRYAAH, the human rights organization Amnesty International
criticized Egypt for violating both international law and
its own laws, saying that the residents completely lacked
legal security. Several hundred democracy activists were
sentenced to life imprisonment for participating in riots,
rioting for violence and attacks on security forces.
During the summer, several coordinated attacks were
carried out by the IS-linked terror group Sinai Province,
which changed its name from Ansar Beit al-Madis last year
after swearing allegiance to the terrorist network IS. The
worst hit by terrorist attacks was the Sinai Peninsula,
where mainly army postings were attacked in several cities.
In July, a Croatian man was kidnapped on his way to Cairo.
At the end of June, the country's prosecutor Hisham
Barakat was killed in an explosion. Barakat, as a state
prosecutor, had brought thousands of Islamists to justice
and had several threats directed at them before the attack.
Following the assassination of Barakat, President Abd
al-Fattah al-Sisi demanded stricter anti-terrorism
legislation, and in August, the president approved a new
anti-terror law aimed at stopping militant Islamists. But
the law also included impunity for police and military who
used force in their professional practice and stricter
penalties for journalists reporting attacks and military
operations in a way that runs counter to the official
version of the government. The death penalty was introduced
for those convicted of forming or leading a terrorist group.
The election, which should have been held in March, was
postponed until October, as the Supreme Court considered
that the electoral law was contrary to the constitution.
Between October 17 and December 2, two rounds of elections
were held in different parts of the country. At the second
round of voting, 28 percent of voting participants were
calculated. The election, described by critics as a father
because many opposition parties were banned from
participating, became a huge success for President al-Sisi.
All of the 120 seats added through party lists went to the
Alliance For Egypt's sake, which consisted of parties loyal
to the president.
The day after the second round, a terrorist attack
occurred against a hotel in al-Arish in northern Sinai,
where several judges who supervised the election lived. One
of the judges was shot dead and six other people were killed
in the attack.
On October 31, a Russian aircraft crashed over the Sinai
Peninsula. The plane was on its way from the tourist resort
of Sharm el-Sheikh to Saint Petersburg and all 224
passengers were killed. An investigation revealed that the
plane had been broken in the air, and both the UK and the US
found it could be a terrorist act, while Egypt and the
Russian Federation initially dismissed this as speculation,
saying it had been a mere accident. Three weeks later, the
Russian security service announced to the FSB that the
incident was caused by a terrorist attack after finding
explosives in the wreckage. However, Egyptian investigators
claimed that there was no evidence of a terrorist act.