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Yearbook 2015

Egypt. At the beginning of the year, the country's president Hosni Mubarak, along with his sons, were freed in a case of embezzlement. It was the second time in a short time that the court freed Mubarak from serious charges in connection with the bloody revolt in 2011. Mubarak's successor, Muhammad Mursi, however, was sentenced to death in May for being sentenced to prison riots in January 2011.

2015 Egypt

During the year, the death sentences were set against the 183 members of the Muslim Brotherhood who were accused of attacking a police station in 2013. Without explanation, the court later upheld the judgments against some thirty members of the Brotherhood, including its leader Mohammed Badie.

According to COUNTRYAAH, the human rights organization Amnesty International criticized Egypt for violating both international law and its own laws, saying that the residents completely lacked legal security. Several hundred democracy activists were sentenced to life imprisonment for participating in riots, rioting for violence and attacks on security forces.

During the summer, several coordinated attacks were carried out by the IS-linked terror group Sinai Province, which changed its name from Ansar Beit al-Madis last year after swearing allegiance to the terrorist network IS. The worst hit by terrorist attacks was the Sinai Peninsula, where mainly army postings were attacked in several cities. In July, a Croatian man was kidnapped on his way to Cairo.

At the end of June, the country's prosecutor Hisham Barakat was killed in an explosion. Barakat, as a state prosecutor, had brought thousands of Islamists to justice and had several threats directed at them before the attack. Following the assassination of Barakat, President Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi demanded stricter anti-terrorism legislation, and in August, the president approved a new anti-terror law aimed at stopping militant Islamists. But the law also included impunity for police and military who used force in their professional practice and stricter penalties for journalists reporting attacks and military operations in a way that runs counter to the official version of the government. The death penalty was introduced for those convicted of forming or leading a terrorist group.

The election, which should have been held in March, was postponed until October, as the Supreme Court considered that the electoral law was contrary to the constitution. Between October 17 and December 2, two rounds of elections were held in different parts of the country. At the second round of voting, 28 percent of voting participants were calculated. The election, described by critics as a father because many opposition parties were banned from participating, became a huge success for President al-Sisi. All of the 120 seats added through party lists went to the Alliance For Egypt's sake, which consisted of parties loyal to the president.

The day after the second round, a terrorist attack occurred against a hotel in al-Arish in northern Sinai, where several judges who supervised the election lived. One of the judges was shot dead and six other people were killed in the attack.

On October 31, a Russian aircraft crashed over the Sinai Peninsula. The plane was on its way from the tourist resort of Sharm el-Sheikh to Saint Petersburg and all 224 passengers were killed. An investigation revealed that the plane had been broken in the air, and both the UK and the US found it could be a terrorist act, while Egypt and the Russian Federation initially dismissed this as speculation, saying it had been a mere accident. Three weeks later, the Russian security service announced to the FSB that the incident was caused by a terrorist attack after finding explosives in the wreckage. However, Egyptian investigators claimed that there was no evidence of a terrorist act.

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